Malaria remains a critical public health challenge in Nigeria with impact on vulnerable populations, particularly pregnant women and children. The country accounts for 25% of global cases, contributing to high rates of under-five and infant and maternal mortality. Prevalence among pregnant women ranges from 8.4% to 58.1%, leading to severe complications such as high placental parasitaemia and low birth weight. Despite extensive control efforts, malaria infection risk remains at 97% exacerbated by co-morbidities with diseases like HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis. Inadequate diagnostic methods further complicate eradication efforts, though rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have improved accuracy and management. Genomic research has emerged has as a pivotal tool in combating malaria, offering insight into parasite biology, genetic diversity and drug resistance. Techniques such as genetic epidemiology and genetic barcoding enabled detailed tracking of parasite diversity and transmission patterns, aiding the development of targeted interventions. Studies have shown that reduced genetic diversity correlates with lower transmission rates, emphasizing the role of genomic data in understanding malaria dynamics. Additionally, genomic research has facilitated vaccine development by identifying candidate antigens and assessing vaccine efficacy. Innovations like the TriAntiMalTM regimen exemplify the potential for long-term immunity through genomic insights. The identification of genetic polymorphisms linked to drug resistance highlights the need for new treatment strategies, as resistance to existing artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) becomes prevalent.


Overall, integrating genomic data with epidemiological and geographic information systems enhances malaria control programmes, providing a comprehensive approach to understanding clinical features, preventing, and treating malaria. Continued advancement in genomic research is essential for achieving a malaria-free future in Nigeria