ABDOMINAL OBESITY AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS AMONG MULTIPAROUS WOMEN
Obesity is an important but modifiable risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases, whereas socioeconomic status (SES) is a determinants of health and has major influence on morbidity and mortality. The role of parity and socioeconomic status in the development of abdominal obesity in women is yet to be established, despite the belief of some women that childbirth alter their shape and increase abdominal fats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between parity, different socioeconomic indicators, with abdominal obesity and adiposity in multiparous women.
Materials and Methods
The population for the study included multiparous women who presented between 2015 and 2020 to a tertiary hospital in south- south Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to recruit a sample size of three hundred and eighty-two (382) apparently healthy multiparous women who were not pregnant and who met the inclusion criteria. Socioeconomic indicators were measured using a self-reported questionnaire to assess the social status of the women. Chi square test was used to assess bivariate relationship between abdominal obesity and socio-economic status. Data on abdominal circumference, body weight, height, subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), skin fold thickness, waist and hip ratio (WHR) and socioeconomic status were collected. Measurement of intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and deep abdominal adipose-tissue at L4-L5 area was studied using CT scan.
The study revealed that about 5.2% were from upper class SES homes, 13.8%, 28.3% and 41.6% are from upper middle class, lower middle class, and upper lower class respectively, and the remaining 11 from lower SES homes. The sample population of 6.8% and 33% had abdominal fat and abdominal circumference respectively at risk levels. It was also observed that the deep abdominal adipose-tissue size was significantly higher in the lower socioeconomic class. In bivariable models controlling for socio-economic status and abdominal obesity, it was found to have a strong and dependent association between abdominal fat and circumference with SES among multiparous women.
In conclusion, the study established that parity and increased abdominal obesity was positively associated with lower socioeconomic indicators.
Keywords: Visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, Multiparty, Socioeconomic status, BMI